Monkeypox – PoxVirus 2022 (MPXV): Vaccines, Travel Restrictions and Updates


What is Monkeypox virus?

Monkeypox is a zoonotic (origin from an animal) disease caused by monkeypox virus (MPXV), which is a member of Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. Monkeypox virus is from the family of Variola Virus which causes smallpox where the monkeypox symptom also similar to smallpox symptoms

Monkeypox virus causes symptoms such as fever, skin rashes, muscle and back ache, lesion. It will take minimum of 4 days and maximum of 21 days to get a full recovery.

Where is Monkeypox virus originated from?

According to CDC report, African rodents and non human primates (like monkeys) might harbor the virus cause the infection to the people.

Monkeypox was first discovered and recorded in the year 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In the year 2022, it was reported in several central and western African countries

Monkeypox Symptoms

It may cause

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches and backache
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Chills
  • Exhaustion
  • Skin rash that initially look like pimples / raised spots which further developed in to blisters with lesions (filled with fluid)
  • Blisters may occur in the face / mouth / hands, legs, feet, chest, genitals / anus

How Monkeypox virus spreads?

Monkeypox virus spreads from one person to the other through the close contact through the infected people or an animal or with any material contaminated with that virus. It might cause the infection with lesions, body fluids, respiratory droplets and contaminated materials such as bedding

How long Monkeypox virus lasts?

Monkeypox virus incubation period: 6 to 13 days (or) 5 to 21 days

What test is recommended or diagnosed for the Monkeypox virus?

  • PCR is recommended where the tissue sample taken from an open sore (lesion) and send to the lab for PCR test

An antiviral agent known as tecovirimat that was developed for smallpox was licensed by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for monkeypox in 2022 based on data in animal and human studies. It is not yet widely available.

Monkeypox – PoxVirus 2022 (MPXV): Travel Restrictions and Updates

As of now (26-7-2022), there is no travel bans / restrictions. We will update it shortly if there is any travel restrictions.

Avoid travel if you are infected with monkeypox or feel the symptoms of monkeypox. Use 3 weeks self isolation

United Kingdom

As of 26 th July 2022, there were 2208 confirmed monkeypox cases in UK. Around 2115 from England

Vaccine

UKHSA (UK Health Security Agency) has purchased supplies smallpox vaccine (called Imvanex) for the exposure to monkeypox virus. Vaccine is supplied by Bavarian Nordic.

For more details, visit https://www.gov.uk/government/news/monkeypox-cases-confirmed-in-england-latest-updates

United States

As of 26 th July 2022, there were 3487 confirmed monkeypox cases in USA.

State Cases Range
Alabama 5 1 to 2
Arizona 35 1 to 2
Arkansas 4 1 to 2
California 356 1 to 2
Colorado 53 1 to 2
Connecticut 22 1 to 2
Delaware 3 1 to 2
District of Columbia 139 1 to 2
Florida 273 1 to 2
Georgia 268 1 to 2
Hawaii 10 1 to 2
Idaho 2 1 to 2
Illinois 344 1 to 2
Indiana 33 1 to 2
Iowa 7 1 to 2
Kansas 2 1 to 2
Kentucky 4 1 to 2
Louisiana 25 1 to 2
Maryland 87 1 to 2
Massachusetts 82 1 to 2
Michigan 24 1 to 2
Minnesota 20 1 to 2
Mississippi 1 1 to 2
Missouri 8 1 to 2
Nebraska 5 1 to 2
Nevada 11 1 to 2
New Hampshire 6 1 to 2
New Jersey 81 1 to 2
New Mexico 7 1 to 2
New York 990 1 to 2
North Carolina 34 1 to 2
North Dakota 1 1 to 2
Ohio 15 1 to 2
Oklahoma 4 1 to 2
Oregon 40 1 to 2
Pennsylvania 84 1 to 2
Puerto Rico 9 1 to 2
Rhode Island 10 1 to 2
South Carolina 12 1 to 2
South Dakota 1 1 to 2
Tennessee 18 1 to 2
Texas 220 1 to 2
Utah 11 1 to 2
Virginia 39 1 to 2
Washington 69 1 to 2
West Virginia 1 1 to 2
Wisconsin 9 1 to 2
Non-US Resident 3 1 to 2

Monkeypox Vaccination approved in USA

  • JYNNEOS (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) and ACAM2000

For more details, visit https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/response/2022/index.html

Venezuela

As of 26 th July 2022, there were 1 confirmed monkeypox cases in Venzuela.

Spain

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As of 26 th July 2022, there were 3125 confirmed monkeypox cases in Spain.

Belgium

In Belgium, Monkeypox virus case has increased to 311 which has not historically reported monkeypox

Those who are infected should follow the 21 days isolation period.

Canada

Monkeypox virus case has increased to 681 which has not historically reported monkeypox

For more details, keep in touch with https://travel.gc.ca/travelling/health-safety/travel-health-notices/515

Vaccine:

Imvamune® vaccine is authorized to use against monkeypox infections for the adult over 18 years and more when they are in high risk of exposure.

India

Monkeypox virus has been detected in Kerala on July 12, 2022 for a man who arrived from UAE to Kerala

Italy

In Italy, Monkeypox virus case has increased to 407 which has not historically reported monkeypox

Monkeypox – PoxVirus 2022 (MPXV) Prevention and Treatment

Treatment

  • Since it is like a smallpox, treat it with good care and consume more fluid. Drink more water, tender coconut
  • Vaccinia-virus based smallpox vaccine shows 85 % effective to treat monkeypox virus

Prevention

  • Contact with sick or dead animals should be avoided
  • Use properly cooked meats
  • Use gloves while taking care of sick people and animals
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Wear a mask to cover the mouth and nose when you are outside
  • Use hand sanitizer

Monkeypox – PoxVirus 2022 (MPXV) Vaccine:

JYNNEOS (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) and ACAM2000 are the approved vaccines for the treatment of Monkeypox virus

As per CDC report, JYNNEOS (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) and ACAM2000 are the two vaccines licensed by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are the prevention of monkeypox virus

JYNNEOS are considered to reach maximum immunity 14 days after their second dose (~ 6 weeks from first dose)

Who is considered as fully vaccinated to Monkeypox / Pox Virus 2022 (MPXV)?

Those who have completed the dose about 2 weeks after their second shot of JYNNEOS and 4 weeks after receiving ACAM2000 are considered as fully vaccinated against Monkeypox.

CDC recommends to put the Monkeypox Vaccine Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) within 4 days from the date of exposure of the virus to avoid the symptoms of the virus.

PEP ++ or the expanded PEP / PEP Plus Plus vaccine also to be used

JYNNEOS Manufacturer: Bavarian Nordic A/S

Monkeypox infected countries as of 25, July 2022

Country Cases Category As Of
Argentina 18 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Australia 42 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Austria 99 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Bahamas 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Barbados 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Belgium 311 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Benin 3 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Bermuda 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Brazil 592 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Bulgaria 4 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Cameroon 6 Has historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Canada 681 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Central African Republic 8 Has historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Chile 20 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Colombia 10 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Costa Rica 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Croatia 8 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Czechia 16 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Democratic Republic of the Congo 107 Has historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Denmark 59 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Dominican Republic 3 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Ecuador 2 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Estonia 4 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Finland 13 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
France 1567 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Georgia 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Germany 2352 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Ghana 19 Has historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Gibraltar 5 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Greece 20 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Hungary 33 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Iceland 9 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
India 2 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Ireland 69 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Israel 115 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Italy 407 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Jamaica 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Latvia 3 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Lebanon 4 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Luxembourg 14 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Malta 17 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Martinique 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Mexico 54 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Morocco 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Netherlands 818 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
New Caledonia 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
New Zealand 2 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Nigeria 101 Has historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Norway 46 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Panama 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Peru 203 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Poland 48 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Portugal 588 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Qatar 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Republic of the Congo 2 Has historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Romania 20 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Russia 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Saudi Arabia 2 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Serbia 5 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Singapore 6 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Slovakia 3 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Slovenia 27 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
South Africa 3 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
South Korea 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Spain 3125 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Sweden 77 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Switzerland 234 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Taiwan 2 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Thailand 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Turkey 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
United Arab Emirates 16 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
United Kingdom 2208 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
United States 3846 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT
Venezuela 1 Has not historically reported monkeypox Data as of 25 Jul 2022 5:00 PM EDT

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